Cilindro de Ciro BM 90920

Este cilindro de arcilla escrito en caracteres cuneiformes, fue hallado por el arquelogo britnico Hormuzd Rassam en el mes de marzo de 1879 y se conserva en el British Museum de Londres.

Registra algunos hechos del rey persa Ciro (559-530 a.C), y relata la conquista de Babilonia en 539 aC. y la captura de Nabnido, su ltimo rey, explicando que adulter el culto de los dioses e impuso trabajos forzados a la poblacin, que se quejaba a sus deidades. Los dioses abandonaron la ciudad pero el dios protector de la ciudad busc a quien restaurase el viejo orden, y para esto eligi a Ciro, rey de Anshan (Persia), declarndolo soberano del mundo.

Es interesante notar que unos 200 aos antes de que esto ocurriese, el profeta Isaas escribi bajo inspiracin, que Dios es quien declara de Ciro: l es mi pastor y cumplir todo lo que yo deseo y dice de Jerusaln: Ser erigida y el Templo ser establecido.

Esto dice Yahh para su ungido, para Ciro, a quien tomar por su diestra para someter ante l a las naciones y a las fuerzas de los reyes: Aflojar las puertas para abrirlas y los accesos no permanecern cerrados. (Isaas 44:28; 45:1)

Ciro expandi su poder sobre las tribus de Persia (Guti y Ummanmanda), y rein sobre ellas con justicia y moderacin. Su dios le haba ordenado marchar contra Babilonia y l entr en aquella tierra sin encontrar resistencia. A partir de este momento, el documento est redactado como si fuese el mismo Ciro quien lo hiciese, dice: Yo Ciro, rey del mundo..., y se presenta como el pacificador de Babilonia y el libertador de su poblacin.

 

Los habitantes de los pases vecinos llevaron tributos y dones, y Ciro declara que haba restablecido los templos y los cultos religiosos, y permitido el regreso de las imgenes a su lugar de origen, y el de los pueblos anteriormente deportados, a sus tierras.

Este documento que ha sido considerado el primer tratado de derechos humanos (Vase imagen debajo), lleg a ser conocido a causa de su relacin con el relato bblico del retorno del pueblo hebreo a Jerusaln.

 

El relato bblico dice:


1 Entonces el rey Daro orden buscar en los archivos donde se guardaban los tesoros de Babilonia,

2 y en la fortaleza de Ecbtana, en la provincia de Media, fue encontrado un rollo y en aquel registro estaba escrito:

3 Memoria: En el primer ao del rey Ciro, el rey Ciro hizo publicar este edicto en relacin con la casa de Dios en Jerusaln: Sea la casa reconstruida como lugar para ofrecer sacrificios. Los fundamentos que se coloquen han de ser slidos; ha de tener veintisiete metros de alto por veintisiete de ancho;

4 tres hileras de grandes bloques de piedra y una de madera nueva. El tesoro real pagar los gastos.

5 En cuanto a los utensilios de oro y plata de la casa de Dios, que Nabucodonosor sac del templo de Jerusaln y trajo a Babilonia, deben ser restituidos y llevados al templo de Jerusaln, al lugar donde estaban antes, para ser recolocados en la casa de Dios. (Esdras 6: 2..5)

22 En el ao primero de Ciro, rey de Persia, en cumplimiento de la palabra de Yahh por boca de Jeremas, Yahh despert el espritu de Ciro, rey de Persia, que hizo proclamar en todo el reino a voces y por escrito:

23 Dice Ciro rey de Persia: Yahh, el Dios de los cielos, me ha entregado todos los reinos de la tierra. l me ha mandado que le construya un Templo en Jerusaln, que est en Jud. Cualquiera de vosotros que pertenezca a su pueblo, est con l su Dios y parta! (2Crnicas 36:22..23)

 

El texto del cilindro termina con una referencia al banquete ofrecido en los templos de Babilonia y al hallazgo de la inscripcin de Asurbanipal, rey de Asiria (668-627 a.C.), durante los trabajos de reconstruccin de la muralla.

 

Descripcin y contenido

 

El fragmento A" (BM 90920) mide alrededor 23 x 8 cm. y comprende 35 lneas, mientras que el fragmento B" mide unos 8,6 x 5,6 cm. y comprende 9 lneas.

 

Su contenido puede resumirse as:

 

1      Lneas 1-19: Se describen las acciones culpables de Nabnido, ltimo rey de Babilonia, e indirectamente, se hace referencia a su hijo Belshazzar. Refiere tambin la bsqueda llevada a cabo por el dios principal de Babilonia para hallar un nuevo rey, y de la consiguiente eleccin de Ciro.

2      20-22: Genealoga (hasta su bisabuelo Teispes) y ttulos de Ciro.

3      22-34: El propio Ciro relata el modo en que ha establecido la paz, restablecido los cultos y permitido a los pueblos deportados a Babilonia, regresar  a sus propias tierras.

4      34-35: Oracin de Ciro al dios de Babilonia, pidiendo su favor para l y para su hijo Cambises.

5      36-45: Ciro describe la reconstruccin de las murallas de Babilonia y el hallazgo de la inscripcin de Assurbanipal.

 

Al final de la pgina tenemos la transliteracin de la escritura cuneiforme en caracteres latinos y su traduccin al ingls.


 

Cuneiform text of Cyrus Cylinder: Transliteration

 

 

Text of Fragment A

 

1 [-nu x x x] /x\-ni-u

2 [x x x ki-i]b-ra-a-t

3 [x x x] /x x\ GAL ma-tu- i-ak-na a-na e-nu-tu ma-ti-

4 /?\ [x x x]-i-li -a--ki-na se-ru-u-un

5 ta-am-i-li -SAG-L i-te-[pu-u-ma x x x t]? a-na RIki si-it-ta-a-t ma-ha-za

6 pa-ra-as la si-ma-a-ti-u-nu ta-[ak-li-im la-me-si x x x la] pa-lih u4-mi--am-ma id-de-n-eb-bu-ub /ana ma-ag\-ri-t

7 sat-tuk-ku -ab-ti-li -l[a-ap-pi-it pl-lu-de-e x x x i]-tak-ka-an q-reb ma-ha-zi pa-la-ha dAMAR.UTU LUGAL DINGIRme i[g-m]ur kar-u-u-u

8 le-mu-ut-ti URU-u [i-t]e-n-ep-pu-/u\ u4-mi-a-am-/ma x x\ [x x x G]me- i-na ab-a-a-ni la ta-ap-u-h-t -hal-li-iq kul-lat-si-in

9 a-na ta-zi-im-ti-i-na dEN.LL DINGIRme ez-zi-i i-gu-ug-m[a x x x] ki-su-r-u-un DINGIRme a-i-ib -bi-u-nu i-zi-bu at-/ma\-an-u-un

10 i-na ug-ga-ti-a -e-ri-bi a-na q-reb U.AN.NAki dAMAR.UTU t[i-iz-qa-rudEN.LL DINGIRm]e us-sa-ah-ra a-na nap-har da-d-mi in-na-du- u-bat-su-un

11 Gme KUR u-me-ri URIki a i-mu- a-lam-ta- -sa-/ah\-hi-ir ka-/bat\-[ta-] ir-ta-i ta-a-a-ra kul-lat ma-ta-a-ta ka-li-i-na i-hi-it ib-re-e-ma

12 i-te-'e-e-ma ma-al-ki i--ru bi-bil -bi-a it-ta-ma-ah qa-tu-u-u mKu-ra- LUGAL URU an-a-an it-ta-bi ni-bi-it-su a-na ma-li-ku-t kul-la-ta nap-har iz-zak-ra u-/um-\

13 kurqu-ti-i gi-mir um-man-man-da -ka-an-ni-a a-na e-pi-u Gme sal-mat SAG.DU a -a-ak-i-du qa-ta-a-

14 i-na ki-it-t mi--ru i-te-n-'e-e-i-na-a-t dAMAR.UTU EN GAL ta-ru- Gme- ep-e-e-ti-a dam-qa-a-ta -ba-u i-a-ra ha-di-i ip-pa-li-i[s]

15 a-na URU-u K.DINGIRme ki a-la-ak-u iq-bi -a-as-bi-it-su-ma har-ra-nu TIN.TIRki ki-ma ib-ri tap-pe-e it-tal-la-ka i-da-a-u

16 um-ma-ni-u rap-a-a-t a ki-ma me-e D la -ta-ad-du- ni-ba-u-un giTUKULme-u-nu sa-an-du-ma i-a-ad-di-ha i-da-a-u

17 ba-lu qab-li ta-ha-zi -e-ri-ba- q-reb U.AN.NAki URU-u K.DINGIRme ki i-ti-ir i-na ap-a-q, mdN.N.TUKU LUGAL la pa-li-hi-u -ma-al-la-a qa-tu-u-

18 Gme TIN.TIRkika-li-u-nu nap-har KUR u-me-ri u URIki ru-b-e ak-ka-nak-ka a-pal-u ik-mi-sa -na--i-qu e-pu-u-u ih-du- a-na LUGAL--ti- im-mi-ru pa-nu-u--un

19 be-lu a i-na tu-kul-ti-a -bal-li-tu mi-tu-ta-an i-na pu-u-qu -de-e ig-mi-lu kul-la-ta-an ta-bi-i ik-ta-ar-ra-bu-u i-tam-ma-ru zi-ki-ir-u

20 a-na-ku mKu-ra- LUGAL ki-at LUGAL GAL LUGAL dan-nu LUGAL TIN.TIRki LUGAL KUR u-me-ri ak-ka-di-i LUGAL kib-ra-a-ti er-b-et-t

21 DUMU mKa-am-bu-zi-ia LUGAL GAL LUGAL URU an-a-an DUMU DUMU mKu-ra- LUGAL GAL LUGA[L U]RU an-a-an .BAL.BAL mi-i-pi-i LUGAL GAL LUGAL URU an--an

22 NUMUN da-ru- a LUGAL--tu a dEN u dN ir-a-mu pa-la-a-u a-na tu-ub -bi--nu ih-i-ha L[UGA]L-ut-su e-nu-ma a-n[a q]-reb TIN.TIRkie-ru-bu sa-li-mi-i

23 i-na ul-si ri-a-a-t i-na .GAL ma-al-ki ar-ma-a u-bat be-lu-tdAMAR.UTU EN GAL -bi ri-it-pa-u a ra-/im\ TIN.TIRki i-m[a]/a-ti\ /i-ku?-na\-an-ni-ma u4-mi-am a-e-'a-a pa-la-/ah\-

24 um-ma-ni-ia rap-a-t i-na q-reb TIN.TIRki i-a-ad-di-ha -ul-ma-ni nap-har KU[R u-me-ri] /\ URIki mu-gal-[l]i-t ul -ar-i

25 /URUki\ K.DINGIR.RAki kul-lat ma-ha-zi-u i-na a-li-im-t -te-'e-e DUMUme TIN.TIR[ki x x x ]a ki-ma la -[bi DING]IR-ma ab--a-ni la si-ma-ti--nu u-ziz-/zu!\

26 an-hu-ut-su-un -pa--i-ha -a-ap-ti-ir sa-ar-ma-u-nu a-na ep-e-e-ti-[ia dam-qa-a-ti] dAMAR.UTU EN GA[L]- ih-de-e-ma

27 a-na ia-a-ti mKu-ra- LUGAL pa-li-ih-u mKa-am-bu-zi-ia DUMU si-it -bi-[ia a-n]a nap-h[ar] um-ma-ni-ia

28 da-am-q- ik-ru-ub-ma i-na -lim-t ma-har-a ta-bi-i ni-it-t[a-al-la-ak i-na q-bi-ti-] sir-ti nap-har LUGAL a-i-ib BRAme

29 a ka-li-i kib-ra-a-ta i-tu tam-t e-li-t a-di tam-t ap-li-t a-i-ib n[a-gi-i n-su-t] LUGALme KUR a-mur-ri-i a-i-ib ku-ta-ri ka-li--un

30 bi-lat-su-nu ka-bi-it-t -bi-lu-nim-ma q-er-ba U.AN.NAki -na--i-qu e-pu--a i-tu [U.AN.NAk]i a-di URU a-urki Mي-ERENki

31 a-k-dki KUR -nu-nak URU za-am-ba-an URU me-tr-nu BD.DINGIRki a-di pa-at kurqu-ti-i ma-ha-z[a e-be]r-ti dIDIGNA a i-tu pa!-na-ma na-du- u-bat-su-un

32 DINGIRme a-i-ib -bi--nu a-na -ri-u-nu -tir-ma -ar-ma-a u-bat da-r-a-ta kul-lat Gme--nu -pa-ah-hi-ra-am-ma -te-er da-d-mi--un

33 DINGIRme KUR u-me-ri URIki a mdN.N.TUKU a-na ug-ga-t EN DINGIRme -e-ri-bi a-na q-reb U.AN.NAki i-na q-bi-ti dAMAR.UTU EN GAL i-na a-li-im-t

34 i-na ma-ta-ki-u-nu -e-i-ib -ba-at tu-ub -bi {ut} kul-la-ta DINGIRme a -e-ri-bi a-na q-er-bi ma-ha-zi-u-un

35 u4-mi-a-am ma-har dEN dN a a-ra-ku U4me-ia li-ta-mu- lit-taz-ka-ru a-ma-a-ta du-un-q-ia a-na dAMAR.UTU EN-ia li-iq-bu- a mKu-ra- {-} LUGAL pa-li-hi-ka u mKa-am-bu-zi-ia DUMU-

 

Text of Fragment B

 

36 /x\ [x x x- i]b u-nu lu- /x x x x x x x x\ Gme TIN.TIRki /ik-tar-ra-bu\ LUGAL--tu KUR.KUR ka-li-i-na u-ub-ti n-eh-t -e-i-ib

37 [x x x KUR.]GImuen 2 UZ.TURmuen 10 TU.GUR4muen.me e-li KUR.GImuen UZ.TURmuen.me TU.GUR4muen.me

38 [x x x u4-m]i-am -ta-ah-hi-id BD im-gur-dEN.LL BD GAL-a a TIN.TIRk[i ma-as-s]ar-/ta\- du-un-nu-n -te-'e-e-ma

39 [x x x] ka-a-ri a-gur-ru G ha-ri-si a LUGAL mah-ri i-p[u-u-ma la -a]k-/li-lu\ i-pi-ir-u

40 [x x x la -a-as-hi-ru URU] /a\-na ki-da-a-ni a LUGAL ma-ah-ra la i-pu-u um-man-ni-u di-ku-u[t ma-ti-u i-na (or: a-na) q]-/reb\ U.AN.NAki

41 [x x x i-na ESIR.HD.R]/A\ SIG4.AL.R.RA e-i-i e-pu-u-ma [-ak-lil i-pir-i]-in

42 [x x x giIGme giEREN MAH]me ta-ah-lu-up-t ZABAR as-ku-up-pu nu-ku-[e-e pi-ti-iq e-ri-i e-ma Kme-]i-na

43 [-ra-at-ti x x x ]i-ti-ir u-mu mAN.R-D-IBILA LUGAL a-lik mah-ri-[ia qer-ba-u ap-pa-a]l-sa!

44 [x x x]/x x x\[x x x]-x-t

45 [x x x]/x x x\[x x a-na d]a-r-a-t

 

 

British Museum

Translation by Irving Finkel Assistant Keeper

Department of the Middle East

 

 

Text of Fragment A

 

1 [When ... Mar]duk, king of the whole of heaven and earth, the ....... who, in his ..., lays waste his .......

2 [............]broad ? in intelligence, ...... who inspects} (?) the wor]ld quarters (regions)

3 [...........]his [first]born (=Belshazzar), a low person was put in charge of his country,

4 but [...........] he set [a () counter]feit over them.

5 He ma[de] a counterfeit of Esagil, [and .....]... for Ur and the rest of the cult-cities.

6 Rites inappropriate to them, [impure] fo[od- offerings.......]disrespectful [] were daily gabbled, and, as an insult,

7 he brought the daily offerings to a halt; he inter[fered with the rites and] instituted [....] within the sanctuaries. In his mind, reverential fear of Marduk, king of the gods, came to an end.

8 He did yet more evil to his city every day; his [people ..........], he brought ruin on them all by a yoke without relief.

9 Enlil-of-the-gods became extremely angry at their complaints, and [] their territory. The gods who lived within them left their shrines,

10 angry that he had made (them) enter into Shuanna (Babylon). Ex[alted Marduk, Enlil-of-the-Go]ds, relented. He changed his mind about all the settlements whose sanctuaries were in ruins,

11 and the population of the land of Sumer and Akkad who had become like corpses, and took pity on them. He inspected and checked all the countries,

12 seeking for the upright king of his choice. He took the hand of Cyrus, king of the city of Anshan, and called him by his name, proclaiming him aloud for the kingship over all of everything.

13 He made the land of Guti and all the Median troops prostrate themselves at his feet, while he shepherded in justice and righteousness the black-headed people

14 whom he had put under his care. Marduk, the great lord, who nurtures his people, saw with pleasure his fine deeds and true heart,

15 and ordered that he should go to Babylon He had him take the road to Tintir (Babylon), and, like a friend and companion, he walked at his side.

16 His vast troops whose number, like the water in a river, could not be counted, were marching fully-armed at his side.

17 He had him enter without fighting or battle right into Shuanna; he saved his city Babylon from hardship. He handed over to him Nabonidus, the king who did not fear him.

18 All the people of Tintir, of all Sumer and Akkad, nobles and governors, bowed down before him and kissed his feet, rejoicing over his kingship and their faces shone.

19 The lord through whose help all were rescued from death and who saved them all from distress and hardship, they blessed him sweetly and praised his name

20 I am Cyrus, king of the universe, the great king, the powerful king, king of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four quarters of the world,

21 son of Cambyses, the great king, king of the city of Anshan, grandson of Cyrus, the great king, ki[ng of the ci]ty of Anshan, descendant of Teispes, the great king, king of the city of Anshan,

22 the perpetual seed of kingship, whose reign Bel (Marduk)and Nabu love, and with whose kingship, to their joy, they concern themselves. When I went as harbinger of peace i[nt]o Babylon

23 I founded my sovereign residence within the palace amid celebration and rejoicing. Marduk, the great lord, bestowed on me as my destiny the great magnanimity of one who loves Babylon, and I every day sought him out in awe.

24 My vast troops were marching peaceably in Babylon, and the whole of [Sumer] and Akkad had nothing to fear.

25 I sought the safety of the city of Babylon and all its sanctuaries. As for the population of Babylon [., w]ho as if without div[ine intention] had endured a yoke not decreed for them,

26 I soothed their weariness; I freed them from their bonds(?). Marduk, the great lord, rejoiced at [my good] deeds,

27 and he pronounced a sweet blessing over me, Cyrus, the king who fears him, and over Cambyses, the son [my] issue, [and over] my all my troops,

28 that we might live happily in his presence, in well-being. At his exalted command, all kings who sit on thrones,

29 from every quarter, from the Upper Sea to the Lower Sea, those who inhabit [remote distric]ts (and) the kings of the land of Amurru who live in tents, all of them,

30 brought their weighty tribute into Shuanna, and kissed my feet. From [Shuanna] I sent back to their places to the city of Ashur and Susa,

31 Akkad, the land of Eshnunna, the city of Zamban, the city of Meturnu, Der, as far as the border of the land of Guti - the sanctuaries across the river Tigris - whose shrines had earlier become dilapidated,

32 the gods who lived therein, and made permanent sanctuaries for them. I collected together all of their people and returned them to their settlements,

33 and the gods of the land of Sumer and Akkad which Nabonidus to the fury of the lord of the gods had brought into Shuanna, at the command of Marduk, the great lord,

34 I returned them unharmed to their cells, in the sanctuaries that make them happy. May all the gods that I returned to their sanctuaries,

35 every day before Bel and Nabu, ask for a long life for me, and mention my good deeds, and say to Marduk, my lord, this: Cyrus, the king who fears you, and Cambyses his son,

 

Text of Fragment B

 

36 may they be the provisioners of our shrines until distant (?) days, and the population of Babylon call blessings on my kingship. I have enabled all the lands to live in peace.

37 Every day I increased by [ ge]ese, two ducks and ten pigeons the [former offerings] of geese, ducks and pigeons.

38 I strove to strengthen the defences of the wall Imgur-Enlil, the great wall of Babylon,

39 and [I completed] the quay of baked brick on the bank of the moat which an earlier king had bu[ilt but not com]pleted its work.

40 [I which did not surround the city] outside, which no earlier king had built, his workforce, the levee [from his land, in/int]o Shuanna.

41 [..........with bitum]en and baked brick I built anew, and [completed] its [work].

42 [.........]great [doors of cedarwood] with bronze cladding,

43 [and I installed] all their doors, threshold slabs and door fittings with copper parts. [..............]I saw within it an inscription of Ashurbanipal, a king who preceded me;

44 [...........]his Marduk, the great lord, creator (?) of [ ... ]

45 [..............] my [ I presented] as a gift.....................] your pleasure forever.